I have been excited and anxious about this September. It is my first year teaching grade 5. I am not sharing a room with another teacher this year, and I now teach all subjects like all elementary generalists are supposed to do. I spend less time teaching math, or rather I try to spend less time teaching math. Recommended time allocation is 25% for Language Arts and 15% for math. Can I add math journaling to 25%?

I spent a large part of my summer getting my head around grade 5 topics and outcomes and trying to plan. My google drive notes progressed from “Grade 5 Math Miscellaneous” to “Math Weekly”. For the first few weeks I tried to choose a range of activities that would allow me to set up norms and routines as well as get a sense of how my students solve problems and work with numbers.

**Observations: Are You Good At Math?**

On our first week, I asked my students to share with me if they think they are good at math, explain how they know, and tell me if other people know about their math abilities. Grade 3 responses last year revolved around calculations, but the majority of the students had good confidence about their math skills. Apparently, something changes by the time they reach grade 5.

It sounds like some students are trying to give up already. Something to be mindful of.

**Successes: Visual Patterns**

I love starting a year with Visual Patterns: A perfect example of low floor/high ceiling routine. I get inspiration from visualpatterns.org and eventually move on using the patterns that students have created as prompts.

We started with these patterns.

Students created their own and used Desmos to graph them. I plan to continue working with patterns throughout the year. Building more patterns. Writing expressions. Building patterns for expressions. Checking their predictions with graphs.

**Challenges: Subtraction**

Grade 5 curriculum in Alberta doesn’t mention addition or subtraction of whole numbers. I guess the review is assumed though I wish it was explicitly mentioned. I wasn’t about to dive into decimals operations and multi-digit division and multiplication without ensuring addition and subtraction skills are ready. We started our number talks with subtraction strategies, but I also gave my students some questions to answer that would require them to use subtraction: a mix of word problems and pure arithmetic questions, spread around a few days. Here are some examples. What do you notice and wonder?

I see a pretty vast range of different understandings of numbers, place value and operations.

- Understanding of one-digit operations however without understanding of place value
- Confusion with the algorithm
- Understanding of place value however uncertainty how to apply this understanding to subtraction
- Understanding the relationships between addition and subtraction
- Flexibility with different subtraction strategies and confident understanding of place value

I tried to choose the prompts that would call for particular strategies like adding up or making friendly numbers. About 90% of my students chose to use the standard algorithm for all the prompts, and 50% were getting lost in it. Here are some strategies that students generated. Where do I begin?

**Closing Thoughts**

It seems like the map of understandings is expanding the older the students get, and I find students in very different places. I wonder how grade 7-12 teachers manage to navigate it. How does differentiation look like in different classrooms? Yes, all my students were able to access visual patterns lessons at their level, but they all need to master subtractions skills as well. How do I support my students in getting access to the skills and problems that are currently very challenging for them and the challenges are different for everyone?